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What is a Back Yard Breeder aka BYB?



They can look like normal people, with normal looking dogs


We get emails all the time from people describing pups from BYB's who have pups available and
asking us if they think they should buy from them. So instead of repeating myself year after year
I decided to do up a web page to address the most common questions we receive about BYB's.

The difference of a reputable breeder and a backyard breeder (BYB) is kind of like choosing between
purchasing at the dollar store or buying items from Sears.

Yes you can pretty much find things that look similar and do the same job at the dollar store,
but how long will they work, or last.
Sears has an excellent reputation, return policy and will be there for support, returns or exchanges.
Dollar store well, you pay you leave (tailgate guarantee) and that is it.

Sure you might get lucky at the Dollar store and when you are not paying much usually it is worth the risk.
The problem with living breathing creatures, is if they do not measure up to our expectations
in temperament, health or looks, most people are not going to just toss them out and say
"oh well, I only paid X dollars" and move on.

With dogs, you kind of get what you pay for.

So, What is a Back Yard Breeder aka BYB ?

BYB is someone who has a few pets and decides they can make a few bucks by breeding their dogs together without regard for genetic health,
conformation to breed standard, relationship of the two dogs, or where the dogs came from, consequence of their actions beyond producing pups
and in some cases, no regard for if the dogs are even of the same breed.

BYB's are out to make money and don't care what happens beyond that.

Lets face it, there are some very pretty Poodles out there, that because of poor temperament and or health should never be bred
There are some very friendly, social and intelligent Poodles, that should never be bred because of horrible Conformation/Structure/Health
When a person breeds and offers puppies to the public they should make darn sure by an unbiased source
that their breeding Poodles have proper structure, health, temperament, intelligence and the proof, in form of AKC, CKC or UKC Titles, to back this up.
Otherwise what are these people really breeding for and why are they breeding, and what are they really offering the public ?

No Titles, not all of the 11 OFA Health Clearances done = No Caring Breeder = Back Yard Breeder

Case in point, how many "golden doodles" have had ALL available OFA, DNA testing and have a working or performance title ?
Very few, because most are too crazy and are produced out of defective parents that failed health testing
and yet these mutt breeders advertise that the mix was done to improve temperament and health ..LOL
statements like this rely on the gullibility of the public.



How to recognize a Backyard Breeder and Translate what they are Selling you:



"We will only have this one breeding, we are not Breeders"

These type of people are the worst offenders of irresponsible breeding and contributors to pet overpopulation.
The word evil comes to mind to most Responsible breeders, when they hear this, because these people wear the disguise of kind and caring.
Reality is they feel because are not "breeders" they feel exempt from producing healthy, quality puppies and
performing all the health testing, microchip id, basic health care and offering guarantees, temperament testing, that caring Reputable Breeders
spend a small fortune on doing, to protect the public and best ensure they produce only healthy happy puppies.
They most often are breeding together dogs carrying health problems, genetic defects and producing pups whose health is a ticking time bomb
Of course because they claim they are not breeders, when there is a health or behaviour problem, puppy buyers have no where to turn to.
These type of people also do not care who buys the resulting pups, only that they buy them.
This means that the resulting pups will often be turned into shelters either by the breeder (if they are not sold) or the people they sell to.
Of course these people also let anyone purchasing the pups also breed, so within a year there will be another
ten people also wishing to only have "1" or "2" litters, soon the shelters will be full.
These people take any two dogs of same breed or different breed and put those together
for the pure purpose of producing puppies for profit and no other reason.
Also, keep an eye on the classifieds because most of these BYB's will be posting another similar ad for puppies in 6 months time
and still have the same story about how they are a small time caring family who just want to breed this one time.


"We only have one litter or two litters a year"

This sounds nice doesn't it, at least until you stop to think about why they are breeding at all or if they are telling the truth.
The number of litters a person breeds, does not make them a good or bad breeder, but rather the reason behind why they breed
the thought behind the breedings, the health and quality of the parents, the ability to care for and properly raise mom
and pups as well having homes all lined up before a breeding should be the indicator of a BYB or a good Breeder.
All pups should be produced responsibly no matter how many litters a person is breeding.
This means that ALL pups must be mentally and physically in good condition, well socialised and
have homes lined up for them prior to being produced, with the Pups the breeder is not keeping
for breeding purposes spayed and or neutered before going home, or sold with enforceable non-breeding contracts.
As we all know, a person producing only one litter a year and producing pups that will also be used for breeding
can do more damage to a breed, than someone producing 4 or more litters a year and ensuring all resulting pups will be unable
to be bred and will be enjoyed as loving pets. One breeder producing inferior dogs or selling pups without ensuring their pups
are going to be enjoyed as pets is as damaging as any commercial breeder or puppy mill.
Regardless of how many litters a person produces, all their Breeding Dog's health clearances should be done, all of their
Breeding dogs should have completed some accomplishment in Performance and or Conformation to prove their dogs are even worthy of being reproduced.
Every breeding should be done with great care, thought and responsibility no matter how many litters a person breeds.
Also, keep an eye on the classifieds because most of these BYB's will be posting another similar ad for puppies in 6 months time
even under their friends names, and still have the same story, about how they are a small time caring family who just breed 1 litter a year.
*Click here to read about how to find a good Breeder


"Pups raised under our feet"

Now this sounds great doesn't it ?
Until you stop to think of what toilet training and lessons are the pups receiving.
Well if left to "fend for themselves" they can be learning all sorts of bad habits
such as pooping and peeing anywhere they want to in the house. Eating and chewing on shoes and slippers instead of toys
Jumping up and nipping gets lots of attention. Pooping and peeing where they sleep is OK.
Pups need to be raised in a safe environment with lots of opportunities for rest, because pups need a lot of naps to develop properly.
Without the opportunity to properly rest as they are growing up, pups do not develop properly mentally, they can be very hyper vigilant
prone to excessive barking or nervousness. Pups given constant attention by children and or adults can also lead to separation anxiety or other stress behaviours.
Just think how you would feel working and living all day long in a gold fish bowl with everyone around you 24/7 and constant noise and action going on.
Puppies thrive when given an area made specifically for them. This area will be safe and filled with only puppy friendly items for them to explore and chew
as well as learn through noises, sights and textures. It should also have an adjoining accessible area for them to learn to eliminate in,
to follow and build upon their natural instinct to poo and pee further and further from the den where they eat and sleep in.
This will make toilet training the new puppy in your home a lot easier than a puppy raised in it's own filth in a cage
or left loose in a room or house "under foot" constantly being scolded for chewing on things they should not and
being in places they are not wanted, without any structure, to learn from.


"This breeding was an accident or we had no idea they bred"

Owners that have no intention of breeding will always spay or neuter their pets before they are sexually mature.
Every time they would have appeared at the Vet's office for shots their vet would have discussed this with them.
They would have also had their non-breeding agreement stipulating that they spay or neuter before 6 months of age.
So these BYB's made a full and conscious choice to have their dogs bred, by not preventing it through a spay or neuter.

A female in heat makes a huge mess with blood dripping all over the place for 10 days before they are receptive to males
and will allow a male to breed them. They also go through temperament changes, becoming more affectionate or moody
which is a change that caring owners just can't deny that they knew about and use that information to prevent a breeding.
When a male and female breed, they are usually locked 10-60 minutes, which no caring owner would ever "miss".
Also, keep an eye on the classifieds because most of these BYB's will be posting another similar ad for puppies in 6 months time
and still have the same story about how they are a small time caring family who just had this one accidental breeding.


"The pups are purebred but not registered"

This can mean a few things.
Litter Registration Papers Cost a Breeder $25.00
so there is no logical reason a breeder would offer pups "unregistered" unless....

1. Can mean that the pup's parents are not registered because these people purchased their
poodles from a breeder as a pet, on a non-breeding agreement. Some breeders will hold registration papers
until buyers send them proof of spay or neuter. Which means that these people bold faced lied to the breeder
they purchased from, by saying they wanted a pet with full intention of breeding their pet Poodle.
These same people would have also signed a non-breeding agreement which they are also violating.
This means if the Breeder ever found out about this, that those poodle's and progeny might be seized.
You have to also consider, that if they lied verbally and lied on a contract to one person, what kind of people are they
and what are they going to lie to you about. Just bad "ju ju" ...

2. Some breeders have no problem selling pups for breeding to anyone and everyone with the money, but for a bit
more cost for Breeding rights than for Pet puppies. So you have to ask yourself why then were these people
not able to purchase Breeding Rights in order to register the pups. Well the answer may not be too pretty.
Reputable Breeders do all conclusive health testing. As a result they can have Parents that are "carriers" for diseases
that when breeding these carriers produce pups with no symptoms but who will also be Carriers.
Which is not a big deal unless someone breeds two "Carriers" together.
So as a result a Breeder producing Carriers will not sell any of their pups for breeding for any price,
knowing they would be ticking time bombs if ever bred together.
So a buyer buying an unregistered puppy, really have no idea of any genetic health problems.
This goes for purebred and or mix breeds.
Some of the most popular Designer mixes are from breeds that carry all similar genetic health problems
that should be and can be, screened for so they do not happen.

3. The other consideration to purchasing a puppy without registration papers should be how closely the parents of the "unregistered" pups are.
It is not uncommon for people to buy two pups from the same breeder because of price and location.
It is also very likely if the puppy is a rare breed or rare colour (such as red or brown in Standard Poodles) that the parents
are related and when bred together will be inbreeding which is probably why the BYB does not wish to show registration papers.
So this is also a high chance that the parents of these unregistered pups are related and without papers you have no idea.
I know of one BYB that is breeding son to mother because she doesn't want to pay for a stud fee
and happens to have a boy that will breed his mother. So she has decided to sell the pups as "purebred not registered"
because if people knew that they were son to mother breeding, they would be horrified and not buy from her,
so you have to wonder how inbred these purebred not registered pups are
and you will never know or suspect until health or temperament problems happen.

4. I can't begin to tell people how many "purebred" not registered pups I have seen that grow up to not even resemble the breed that they
were said to be and even though people have met both "purebred" looking parents. Many BYB's will let their female in heat roam
and be bred to any male of any breed, just to see what happens. When the pups are born the pups of course can resemble their mother
and are often sold to misguided public as "purebred" without papers. Then these pups grow up to be the actual mix that they are.
Which when people choose to buy a Poodle because of having allergies, will be a problem.
As well no one wishes to be misled or deliberately deceived. Especially when their are mutts for free in the shelters.


"The price is "__" with papers and "___" without papers"

Litter Registration Papers Cost a Breeder $25.00
so there is no logical reason a breeder would offer pups "unregistered"
Charging a different price for papers, usually means that the pups are not eligable to be registered and won't be.
Make sure to ask for and see the Parent's registration papers or get registration papers in your hand when you leave.
Don't be satisfied with seeing "photo copies" as those can be from anywhere.
Ask for the parent's registered names and call the registries to make sure the parents are registered.
Breeder's that show and health test their dogs, will have to have their dogs registered and is a good sign to look for.


"I don't have the pedigree or know the COI on the litter"

Every Responsible breeder studies their dogs pedigree with a fine tooth comb.
They will know which ancestor had the most genotype or phenotype and which produced problems to avoid.
Breeders will also have a clear vision on where they wish to be in the future with type, structure
colour and temperament in the Poodles they breed.
Of course there are many free pedigree sights online, so make sure you see an AKC, CKC or UKC registered Pedigree
don't be fooled by some phoney online pedigree link that they send you.
Not knowing their dog's pedigree is like driving down the road with your eyes closed.
COI or Coefficient Of Inbreeding is a relatively new tool for breeders to access in which they can
find out mathematically the percentage of inbreeding on any perspective future breeding and also which relatives they will be
breeding heaviest upon or will have the most influence as well. This tool has always been around, but now it is just simplified
with the use of online data bases for each and every breed, instead of figuring it out by hand using the mathematical equations.
Good breeders study their dog's past as thoroughly as they do their future breedings.
BYB's really have no interest in knowing the COI on their breedings or if they are inbreeding, because bottom line for them is producing pups as cheaply
as possible, as quickly as possible for as much money as possible and not caring what they are bringing into the world


"I prefer to speak on the phone, call me"

This is a huge ploy used by Back Yard Breeders so that they can control the conversation.
What happens is that they spend their time bad mouthing other breeders and divert any uncomfortable
questions about the health and quality of their Poodles. This is usually because either their Poodles are not healthy, not titled
and or not registered or all the above. Beware of the breeder that is fearful of putting any of their
answers to your questions, in writing in an email, because they don't wish to be caught in a lie or held accountable.


"These pups are healthier because they are not purebred"

This could possibly be believable if purebreds were not used to create these 'designer' breeds.
You take two breeds of dogs that have health issues that should be screened for and that are not i.e. for "labradoodle"
and breed them together... what you get is huge potential for a mix breed with health problems.
You take two breeds and put them together that are not physically similar then you end up with physical
extremes or incompatible structural issues that will cause problems later in life
such as malalignment of the jaw on some poodle crosses.
There are inherent health issues unique to each purebred breed that today there are
DNA testing for to screen out effected dogs from a breeding program, that was not available years ago
so breeders can avoid health issues with OFA, DNA Testing that was not available for before
thanks to the purebred Breed Clubs who financed such research.
There is also enough diversity in each breed to not have to worry about purebreds being inbreed.
There is a mathematical tool today that all breeders may utilize to find out how to avoid inbreeding
or avoid common ancestors that produced health concerns. This equation is called a Coefficient of inbreeding.


"Our Poodles are Healthy"

Sure dogs can appear physically fine but be ticking time bombs.
Dogs can be carriers of many illnesses that a breeder will want to avoid perpetuating, by testing.
Beware of a Breeder that doesn't health test their Poodles.
Every Reputable Breeder will have ALL OFA health clearances completed.
Just because the parents are still alive, does not mean that their genes combined will
produce healthy pups. Reputable breeders do DNA health testing to ensure that neither parent
is carrying any hidden genetic defects before breeding their Poodles.
To know for sure if a Poodle has completed health testing just go to the OFA web page:
http://www.offa.org and search a kennel name.
This is an example of what you should see Bijou's Dare to be Different's Health testing.
Poodles should have every "conclusive" health screening available such as but not limited to:
Hip and Elbow Dysplasia, Patella Luxation, Thyroid Disease, Legg-Calve-Perthes, Degenerative Myelopathy
Congenital Cardiac Disease, Von Willebrand's Disease, Neonatal Encephalopathy with Seizures Disorder.


"We won't ship our puppies"

At first this sounds like a very caring breeder until you stop to think why they won't ship.
In Canada a breeder must obtain a health Certificate from a licenced Veterinarian within 10 days of shipping a puppy.
This means a puppy has had to have perfect health as attested to by a Veterinarian, prior to leaving the breeder's care.
That means the puppy presented to the Vet has had to be in perfect health, no eye problems, no ear infections, no parasites, no heart murmurs.
In the USA a health certificate is good for 30 days and those pups also have had to check out in good health before being shipped.
Some breeder's raise their puppies in a barn or in their own filth inside the home in cages or wire exercise pens, those pups covered in parasites
such as ticks, fleas, or have bad ear and eye infections or are covered in caked on poop too far gone for the Breeder to bother cleaning up to visit the Vet.
As a result these puppies would never pass a Vet's inspection to receive a Health Certificate.
Hopefully any Vet seeing pups in such poor condition would also alert the authorities to such abuse and or neglect.
This is why some people that breed, will not ship their pups, because they will be unable to get a Vet to sign a Health Certificate that the pups are healthy.
or they are too afraid to be caught and reported for their mistreatment of their pups and adults.
Of course if you drive to their home, and see the poor condition that the puppies live in, they hope that you will still purchase
if only because you feel so sorry for that poor puppy and the future of them remaining in such an environment.
If a breeder tells you that they won't ship, BUT, says they pups have a valid Health Certificate and you see that their
home is clean and dogs and pups are in good health then, that is a different happier story.


"Our Poodle Parents are from Champion lines"

EVERY Poodle has Champion "lines". It is no big deal to those that know the difference to make such a claim.
The pup's parents and or grandparents having a championship would influence the quality of the pups.
A couple Champions 3 or greater generations back has very little influence on the quality
of the puppies in front of you, because the titles and quality Poodles are too far back.
Every... EVERY Poodle will probably have a champion or two somewhere back in their pedigree.
What a buyer wants to see is parents and grandparents who are champions and show quality in a puppy's breeding.
Lying and saying pups are from Champion lines is a sales ploy to impress naive buyers, who they hope may not know the difference.


"Sire is a Top Producer"

Unless a male has produced champion offspring, this statement is a lie, being used
as a sales technique by backyard breeders to impress the niave.
If the said sire has not produced Champions, what these BYB's are really saying is that the male has been bred to a lot of females".
goodness knows what diseases this well used stud, would also be passing along to his offspring.
Top Producing Sire is a designation given to a male that has produced a large number of Champion offspring.
Such a Top Producing Sire, should produce pups of superior quality.
If a male has not produced champion offspring then they may not be called Top Producing Sires.
They are called "bred a lot" sires, used to anything and everything for a quick buck, regardless of quality of the resulting offspring.

"I don't believe my Poodle has to earn a title to prove its worthiness to breed"

So why are they breeding then if not to produce a superior specimen for working or showing ?
Answer: pups for profit, aka BYB
Well imagine if every breeder felt this way ?
No need for consistancy within the breed's appearance.
No need for our Poodles to have any sort of nice temperament.
No need for our poodles to be bred with any sort of intelligence.
No need because no one will ever question or test for these qualities, so why worry about it ?
Everyone looking for a puppy will just have to "believe" the breeder in question, when they say their Poodles are "all that".
I can assure you that without professional evaluation from licenced impartial Judges
and resulting titles our Poodle breed achieves, we would soon end up with Standard Poodles
resembling very little of the original breed, because there would be no "guide" for breeders to follow.
All the vicious or too hyper of poodles, that are quickly eliminated from a breeding program because
they would not be able to show or work in AKC, UKC, CKC events, would now be kept and bred
because who cares any more.
This is a pretty scary future if all breeders didn't worry about any professional evaluations in form of titles.
Believe it or not...
there are some very pretty Poodles out there, that because of poor temperament should never be bred
There are some very friendly and social and intelligent Poodles, that should never be bred because of horrible conformation
Now as a Buyer paying huge dollars for a dog that should live 8-15 years, wouldn't you wish some assurances
in health, looks and Temperament in the puppy you are investing in ?


"We don't go to Dog Shows because our Poodles are just Pets"

Wow... So why are they breeding pet quality dogs, dogs that do not meet the breed standard, together ?
Believe it or not
there are some very pretty Poodles out there, that because of poor temperament and or health, should never be bred
There are some very friendly and social and intelligent Poodles, that should never be bred because of horrible conformation
When someone has made the choice to breed, it is their responsibility to the breed and the public to only
put together the best that they can.
Keep in mind as a Buyer paying huge dollars for a dog that should live 8-15 years, wouldn't you wish some assurances
in health, looks and Temperament in the puppy you are investing in ?
Breeders breed to improve on the next generation
BYB's breed to sell puppies for profit, regardless of quality or health.
These type of breeders breed for the pure purpose of producing puppies for profit and no other reason.


"We breed mutts so we can't show"

I find it amusing when people say they breed mutts to fill a purpose but never stand behind their words and prove
their mutts can fulfil that purpose, through the many available dog sport events and venues available as of 2013 for "all" breeds.
Some events available to enter are Barn Hunting, Therapy Dog, Canine Good Citizen, hog hunting
Carting, Coursing, Weight Pulling, and put on by various associations (not all AKC) that you can do that are even
specifically designed to determine if the dogs you are breeding (the breed you are breeding) is even able to fulfil
the purpose for which that particular breed was created for.
Purebred breeders do prove the worthiness of their breeding dogs by getting titles in many venues.


"Showing Encourages Extremes in Dogs"

As a Breeder I fail to fathom why a breeder would not value an "unbiased" professional, outsiders opinion in the dogs you are choosing to breed.
To ensure that the dogs you are breeding actually meet the breed standard (blue print for the breed) and that you don't have kennel Blindness.
or your dogs even look like what the breed is supposed to look like. Especially today when there are so many various venues to choose from.

And sure man has created a number of breeds that would not be sustained without the perpetuation
of man's intervention for specific purposes, such as the English Bulldog.
But also keep in mind, that showing and breeding purebreds is how breeds like the Poodle retain their appearance,
ability and uniqueness of being hypoallergenic that we enjoy today.

Of course like anything as us humans get wiser we change and our philosophies change...
for example "inbreeding" that was so totally accepted as an easy path to "uniform" looks many decades ago,
is no longer tolerated by the Public, or encouraged by breeders, Breeders are now "thinking" and studying the breed
and the lines in order to gain uniformity along with diversity by using the COI tool.


"Showing Purebreds eliminates perfectly good dogs based strictly on physical imperfections"

YES !!!! Physical imperfections should not be perpetuated !!
However showing the physical is just a start because also dogs that are too shy, too aggressive to be handled, basically do not have good temperaments
will also be eliminated from winning or in some cases ever being eligible to show again.
It is also good to know that a lot of so called, physical "imperfections" are undesirable, because they go hand in hand with
genetic problems in certain breeds such as Merle coloured Standard Poodles.
The (M) allele (Merle) is an excellent example of pleiotropy, the phenomenon where a single allele can cause distinct and seeming unrelated physical effects.
Even in the heterozygous (Mm) dog the (M) allele is associated with deafness, eye defects, and problems with the dogs immune system.
This can be explained by understanding a little bit about the early fetal development of the dog.
Another example would be albino Boxers because along with that coat colour came health issues
such as deafness, baldness, and other genetic mutations that caused health problems.

So demonizing Dog Shows today therefore is a bit antiquated, when In fact, involvement of more breeders in dog shows,
would help to change, educate and help the growth of the sport in a healthy direction.
AKC breed standards stating colour acceptance is also often just statement of fact.
For example it is genetically it is "impossible" for certain colour coats to have certain colour "points" (noses, lips, eye rims)
The AKC breed standard for Standard Poodles says:
Brown and cafe-au-lait - Poodles have liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, dark toenails and dark amber eyes.
This doesn't mean that breeders "choose" to breed for that...rather it is a genetic surety and the Breed Standard is showing
us this. You will never find a brown Standard Poodle with black nose and blue eyes as it is genetically impossible.


"I don't go to Dog Shows because I have Anxiety/Depression/just fill in the blank"

Everyone has a story they can tell of trials and tribulations they could use and exploit as an excuse to not breed ethically and correctly.
Ethical and Reputable Breeders want their dog's Temperament, Intelligence, Structure evaluated by unbiased licenced Professionals to ensure
that they are on the right track in their breeding program and that their dogs are worthy of reproducing and enhancing the Poodle breed.
There are professionals to assist them in every area, no excuses.


"I don't show because I can't keep the show coats or it is too political"

This much is very true about CKC or AKC shows. The show coat required to show means a poodle is kept confined 24/7
and their hair banded and wrapped all to protect their precious show coats. Not much of a life for a Poodle or any dog.
In order to finish their championship they will usually have to be shown by a stranger and sent away with that stranger for
weeks or months at a time. Again not really much of a life for a beloved family member.
However that being said, there are numerous alternative venues and events a Reputable Breeder can enter and train for to prove
their dog's quality. Events like Rally, Obedience, Agility, Weight Pulling, Lure Coursing, Dock Jumping, Disc Toss, Protection
Canine Good Citizen (CGC), Canine Good Neighbour, just to name a few events.
There is no excuse for a breeder to be breeding and doing nothing with their dogs other than pumping out puppies for profit.


"The parents or lines are imported from ____"

Anyone in North America can buy a cheap dog from a foreign country.
Matter of fact many BYB's that can't obtain pups from reputable breeders will import Poodles for breeding.
Knowledgable breeders will not import inferior quality dogs from foreign countries
Europe is notorious for sending their crap to North American buyers.
North America does not have the strict quarantine laws that other countries have.
This means in poor economical times that many foreign breeders are gladly parting with their dogs or pups for breeding
some that are inferrrior quality or producing poor quality, to unsuspecting BYB's or Novice Breeders.
European titles earned within FCI are confusing and 'every' dog that is shown will receive a written critique and or rating
and these critiques do not mean that the dog is a champion or of quality.

European Breeders just often don't have the resources, Finances, access and/or the desire
that breeders in North America do to research and keep data bases to track health issues, Participate in health clinics
in order to maintain a healthy breeding program or to even keep track of any health issues to prevent health problems
in a line like we do in North America.

Some European breeders do not maintain the same vaccination protocol that we do in North America
and as a result pups produced may not have expected immunity to common ailments that North American
puppies will have. Adults may even die of canine distemper, parvovirus or an upper respiratory infection
such as distemper associated pneumonia as a result. Before you import a puppy or buy from imported parents,
ask if the parents are still alive and healthy as you do not want to import a Poodle with immunodeficiency.

Most European breeders also do not have the resources, desire or knowledge about health testing,
so it would be unusual to purchase a dog from Europe that has had any health testing or screening.
Some more Novice Breeders find quality Poodles in Europe and purchase, feeling they will be getting a good outcross or diversity
by purchasing from another country, but what they soon realise when they actually look at the pedigree,
is that they have just purchased North American lines, from Europe.
Others purchase from Europe with no understanding of how AKC registration works and soon find out
they have purchased a Poodle that can not be registered with AKC and is now a worthless investment.
Always get registration papers at time of purchase, or you likily won't ever get them.


"I don't work, so this gives me lots of time with the puppies"

This can sound ideal to most people who don't fully understand the expenses involved in Breeding.
What this person is saying is that they pay their bills and put food on the table with they money they make selling their puppies.
So you have to think if in their litter they produced a defect, given the choice between spaying and neutering the parents
to never have that defect again in their pups .... OR ... continuing to breed hoping no one will notice or complain
because they have their hydro, cable or groceries to buy, what choice do you think that person will make ?
Reputable Breeders have "real" verifiable full time employment outside of the home so that they can afford to make
choices about their breeding program that will only enhance and better that program, despite the costs involved.



"I don't have a web page"

Today a Reputable Breeder is expected to have a web page.
This gives the public confidence that the Breeder is established and willing to put their reputation out there.
An extensive web page, also is an indicator that this breeder will not just be taking your cash and disappearing, leaving you with
a unhealthy, unregistered, mix breed that you paid hard earned money for.
The world is a small place and it is not always feasible for you to travel to your breeder's home.
The web page should include current and updated photos, if not video of each of their adult Poodles (not just cute pups).
If they only have a couple photos of their adult poodles, beware you are dealing with a BYB or worse
someone just using stock photos they scooped off of other web pages, to get your money and run.
Caring reputable breeders will always have current photo or video of the puppies parents.
because their dogs should be in good enough condition for them to be proud to show you.
If they do not have such material available on Poodles they are breeding, then you have stumbled upon a BYB.



SO WHAT IS YOUR BYB PURCHASE SUPPORTING ?


The back yard breeder is the single greatest cause of pet overpopulation.
Back yard breeders usually do not have bad intentions, but the results of back yard breeding are devastating.

The majority of homeless or abandoned dogs come from Back Yard Breeders.
Back Yard breeders often have pups over 8 weeks of age left to place because they don't have the reputation and
referrals and often the set up, that established breeders have. As a result many of their unwanted and unplaced pups end up in Animal Shelters.
Most BYB sell locally through newspaper ads, breed forums, free online classifieds to the naive.

Back Yard Breeder's will also be available to have you come out and visit their dogs and puppies at any time and with short notice.
BYB rely on you falling in love with their available puppies without any concern if you are appropriate to own a Poodle.
BYB's responsibility ends when the purchaser's taillights disappear from sight.

Beware of any breeder that invites you to come out to their kennel before knowing about you, your family,
your dog experience or filling out an application and especially when they have young pups susceptible to disease.

Back Yard Breeders usually live in rented homes and can be transient (pick up and leave) in a moments notice.
Leaving the buyer with no where to go to for guarantees, registration papers or to go to for any issues/problems.

Many back yard breeders do not have the knowledge to properly house, raise, train a healthy, socialized litter,
or have the knowledge to help the new owner with any problems that might arise.
They often will house their pups in the living room or similar area in raised cages
or an Exercise Pen thinking the pups are getting socialised well enough.
What happens in this type of set up is that it promotes dirty habits. Pups learn to pee and poo where they eat and sleep.
No toilet training is started.

Also most pups don't get the proper socialising or interacting because nothing is structured to
ensure each gets the proper amount of handing and proper amounts of sensory stimulation.
Buyers will get a fearful (but affectionate), dirty puppy that takes weeks if not months to toilet train.

Back yard breeders may act on a desire to make extra money, or simply out of ignorance.
Sometimes BYB will breed so "their children can experience the miracle of birth", or they mistakenly believe "every dog should have one litter."

BYB may even act like experts to deceive the public, spending a great deal of time on message boards or Forums
bad mouthing other breeders, to promote their own pups as they have nothing good to say about their own breedings to promote them.

BYB may think their dog is so beautiful and good looking that he/she would make wonderful puppies,
with little or no thought for the homes to which their puppies will go.

BYB see how much money legitimate breeders charge for pups and figure they could make some "easy money" too,
not understanding that Reputable breeders charge what they do to help differ costs of health testing, titling, training and raising healthy dogs and pups.

Back yard breeders usually bring two breeding animals together regardless of their quality.
They will do many stud services to any female. They may even start to co-own dogs to stud.
They are not interested in scientific breeding, they may not even know their dogs pedigrees or COI.
They will not have photos of their dog's parents or grandparents to learn more about their Heritage

Their aim is to fulfill a personal need, such as to make friends, social acceptance, or money, but NOT to improve the breed
and bring excellent quality dogs to the world to further their breeding program or improve traits.


Since breed excellence is generally unimportant to the BYB their breeding dogs generally will not have been tested
for genetic and health problems (no OFA clearances)
BYB usually make up some story about having prelims (preliminary exams of hips)
or say that they can mail you copies (usually after your purchase) that never do arrive.
Their health testing is NEVER available online to the world to see.
Always verify all health testing numbers by calling the organizations or checking the OFA numbers online.
Photo copies of health testing has been faked too often to be accepted any longer. OFA has an online data base
available 24 hours, 7 days a week and a breeder can easily provide this to anyone inquiring about their puppies.

Standard Poodles should "minimally" have health clearances from:
*Hip Displasia
*Thyroid Disease
*Elbow Displasia
*Patellar Luxation
*Legg-Calve-Perthes
*Degenerative Myelopathy
*Congenital Cardiac Disease
*vWD (Von Willebrand's Disease)
*Neonatal Encephalopathy with Seizures
The above tests are all the "conclusive" health testing available today.
meaning do it once, as the results are conclusive and will not change which is a small investment.
OFA
"maximally" Standard Poodles will also have CERF testing (Canine Eye Registration Foundation)
SA (Sebaceous Adenitis), however it is important to know that CERF and SA are NOT conclusive tests
and will have to be done yearly in order to be valid.

Back yard breeders are not necessarily bad people, setting out to intentially rip anyone off.
They often come from low to middle income families and their dogs can be well loved and even kept.
However, getting a pup from a back yard breeder is a gamble:

~ BYB's dog's parents likely have not been screened for health problems

~ BYB's puppies usually are not sold with contracts and no future support to the buyer

~ BYB's are not in it for the long haul and will not be around to honor any guarantees

~ BYB's will often be working on new breed with new personal objectives in five years when your pet has a problem and you need help.

~ BYB's do not show, do obedience, temperament test, achieve ANYTHING with their dogs, as their only goal is producing ~Pups for Profit~

~ BYB's will say that they "work out of the home" usually a fake landscaping, management or cleaning business,
yet reality is that they not have any full time employment.
In this case, most often they are on Welfare or Disability using the puppy money to live on, making their breeding choices,
based on profit only, not based on what is best to improve the breed or to breed healthy pups.

Although you might pay less for the breed of your choice from a back yard breeder because they usually charge $200.00-$400.00 less than reputable breeders
it's almost a given that in the long run, you'll pay a good deal more in vet bills and perhaps emotionally
(if the dog has to be euthanized due to a health or temperament problem), than you would from a reputable breeder.

The worst type of BYB will attempt to discredit other breeders, in hopes that by their fear mongering, Buyers will purchase
from them instead, thinking they must be good breeders.
Reputable breeders "educate" Buyers that contact them. They don't trash talk or fear monger to make sales as
a Reputable breeder wants to make sure their puppy goes home to a forever home that is going to be happy with their puppy for their lifetime.

*Conclusive Health Testing ALL Breeders should be doing*


Hip Dysplasia: $35.00 to OFA certify
Hip Dysplasia is an inherited polygenetic disease that manifests itself in a malformation of the hip joint
in which the ball and socket do not properly fit together. Mildly dysplastic dogs may not exhibit any outward signs.
Moderate to severe cases may exhibit rear end lameness and/or discomfort when getting up.
Arthritis often occurs over time from wearing on the hip joint. Young dogs, five to ten months, may be affected
and older dogs may develop chronic degenerative join disease.
(Breeders should submit hip, patella, cardiac, elbow, thyroid at the same time Vet charge will be around $300.00)
OFA - Orthopedic Foundation for Animals the world recognizes OFA and they also offer certified preliminary Certification
OVC (Ontario veterinary college) Certification done at 18 months is now accepted by OFA for certification but is not graded
PennHip (Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program) now accepted by OFA for Certification
Hip Dysplasia Information
Sample of OFA reports

Elbow Dysplasia: $35.00 to OFA certify
Elbow dysplasia is a general term used to identify an inherited polygenic disease in the elbows of dogs.
Young dogs, four to ten months of age, may begin to show lameness.
The elbows may seem swollen and are held outward from the chest.
(Breeders should submit hip, patella, cardiac, elbow, thyroid, Legg-Calve-Perthes at the same time Vet charge will be $350.00)
OFA Hip/Elbow Application
About Elbow Dysplasia
Importance of Proper Hip Placement

Legg-Calve-Perthes: $25.00 to OFA Certify
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCP) is a disorder of hip joint conformation occurring in both humans and dogs.
LCP results when the blood supply to the femoral head is interrupted resulting in avascular necrosis,
or the death of the bone cells. Followed by a period of revascularization, the femoral head is subject to remodeling
and/or collapse creating an irregular fit in the acetabulum, or socket. This process of bone cells dying and fracturing
followed by new bone growth and remodeling of the femoral head and neck, can lead to stiffness and pain.
Legg-Calve-Perthes Application
Legg-Calve-Perthes Information

Patellar Luxation $15.00 to OFA certify
The patella, or kneecap, is part of the stifle joint (knee).
In patellar luxation, the kneecap luxates, or pops out of place, either in a medial or lateral position.
Bilateral involvement is most common, but unilateral is not uncommon.
Animals can be affected by the time they are 8 weeks of age.
The most notable finding is a knock-knee (genu valgum) stance.
The patella is usually reducible, and laxity of the medial collateral ligament may be evident.
The medial retinacular tissues of the stifle joint are often thickened, and the foot can be seen
to twist laterally as weight is placed on the limb.
(Breeders should submit hip, patella, cardiac, elbow, thyroid at the same time Vet charge will be $300.00)
OFA - Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Application
Information on Patellar Luxation

Congenital Cardiac $15.00 to OFA certify
In Standard Poodles, atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent ductus arteriosis (PDA)
are inherited defects of the heart which can lead to a shortened life span and impaired quality of life.
(Breeders should submit hip, patella, cardiac, elbow, thyroid at the same time Vet charge will be $300.00)
Make sure your Veterinarian listens to the heart BEFORE using any anethetic on the dog.
OFA Cardiac Application
Information on Congenital Cardiac Disease

Thyroid Disease $15.00 to OFA certify (most labs charge $15.00)
The most common cause of primary hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) in dogs is autoimmune thyroiditis.
Autoimmune thyroiditis is an inheritable disease that is seen in all three varieties of Poodles,
but is more common in Standard Poodles. This disorder may affect a dog at any age, but clinical signs
are often seen in dogs between two to five years of age. Hypothyroidism is not generally a life-threatening disease,
but it is a permanent condition. When diagnosed, the traditional, effective treatment is a daily, or twice daily,
dose of a thyroid hormone replacement (synthetic L-thyroxine). Dogs with this condition should not be bred.
(Breeders should submit hip, patella, cardiac, elbow, thyroid at the same time Vet charge will be $300.00)
OFA Thyroid Application
Information about Thyroid Disease

vWD (Von Willebrand's Disease) $119.00 to Purchase (OFA 'used to' certify)
Von Willebrands disease is an inherited bleeding disorder.
In vWD, bleeding is caused by the absence of the von Willebrand’s factor, which is needed in the early stages of clotting.
Bleeding is likely to be mild in Standard Poodles with vWD.
VetGen Lab Application
VetGen Lab
About vWD

PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Toy and Miniature Poodles only !)
a slowly developing disease process ~ the affected dog will gradually lose its sight and will usually adjust to its handicap.
Information about PRA
Order PRA Test from OptiGen

NEwS (Neonatal Encephalopathy with Seizures)
Neonatal refers to the time immediately after birth. Encephalopathy refers to a disease affecting the brain.
Thus Neonatal Encephalopathy means a disease of the brain that becomes apparent soon after pups are born.
Affected pups have been weak, uncoordinated, and mentally dull from birth. If they survive the first few days, they nurse adequately.
They may not, however, be able to compete with stronger pups in the litter and their growth may be stunted.
Some cannot stand at all. Others manage to struggle to their feet and walk with jerky movements, falling frequently.
Seizures develop in most affected pups at 4-5 weeks of age. Attempts to control these seizures with medication have proven futile,
and the pups die or are euthanized before they reach weaning age.


DM (Degenerative Myelopathy)
Degenerative myelopathy is a progressive disease of the spinal cord in older dogs.
The disease has an insidious onset typically between 8 and 14 years of age.
It begins with a loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs. The affected dog will wobble when walking, knuckle over or drag the feet.
This can first occur in one hind limb and then affect the other. As the disease progresses, the limbs become weak and the dog begins
to buckle and has difficulty standing. The weakness gets progressively worse until the dog is unable to walk.
There are no treatments that have been clearly shown to stop or slow progression of DM.
OFA DM information



NEW HEALTH TESTING AVAILABLE

Juvenile Renal Dysplasia (JRD)
Juvenile renal dysplasia (JRD) is an important category of kidney diseases in canines.
Dysplasia is defined as abnormal growth or development of cells or organs.
Poodles diagnosed as having symptoms of JRD usually only live until the age of 2.
Validity of the DoGenes DNA Testing:
As of 2012 all Poodles tested have been tested as positive for being Carriers or technically speaking are "Homozygous" for JRD
Homozygous means having inherited the same "gene" for a particular trait (JRD) from both parents and in this case
would mean all Poodles tested have tested as being carriers of JRD DNA which means that 2 Homozygous Poodles
bred together would produce pups that would be dropping like flies from this disease at age of 2 and this is just not happening.
Based on this knowledge we feel that this test needs to be refined a bit more before we will support this test.
In the meantime the JRD DNA Test has been made available by Doctor Mary Whiteley
through her own company DOGenes Inc. of Canada.


INCONCLUSIVE HEALTH TESTING AVAILABLE:


Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) (DNA testing for Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Toy and Miniature Poodles only !)
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) refers to a group of diseases affecting the retina at the back of the eye.
These diseases cause the cells of the retina, which initially look and function normally, to become increasingly abnormal over time.
In most cases, given a long life, the eventual outcome is blindness.


CERF - The Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) maintains a registry and offers testing.
~ Certification is not a life time "clearance" and is only good for 12 months from the date of the eye exam ~
Annual re-examination is required for a breeder to be able to state that their Poodles have been CERF tested Clear of eye disease for that year.


Addisons Disease
There is no line or color of Standard Poodles that is not affected by Addison's
and no dogs that can be certified as "clear" of the disease.
Breeders who test for Addison's yearly, are only confirming that their dogs do not have the disease at the time of the testing.
Addison's can strike at any age, so testing for Addison's does not guarantee that the dog will not develop Addison's later in life,
nor does it guarantee that any puppies will not develop Addison's.
As of January 2008, it has been announced that researchers have found that Addison's in Standard Poodles is most probably polygenic,
involving the combinations of several genes. It is not, as was thought earlier, a simple recessive. Until more information is known,
the mode of inheritance remains unknown.
The only definitive test for Addison's is the ACTH stimulation test that is performed on a suspected effected dog (ie symptoms present).


SA (Sebaceous Adenitis)
There is no DNA test available to genotypically detect S.A. The exact mode of inheritance is unknown.
Currently, diagnosis is based on skin biopsy samples, and unfortunately the current screening method may result in false negatives.
Sebaceous Adenitis (SA) is a hereditary skin disease in which the sebaceous glands become inflamed, often leading to progressive loss of hair.
The disease is primarily seen in Standard Poodles, Akitas, and Samoyeds, although there have been reported cases in a number of other breeds
and mixed breeds as well. The disease can develop in a wide age range, with age of onset documented as early as 1 year and as late as 12 years.
Males and females appear to be affected equally.


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